Navalny and „smart voting“ in the perception of the Russian population (Public Opinion Polls by the Levada Center)
Random-sample questionnaire-based nationally representative polls conducted as omnibus surveys in 2013, 2018 and 2020-22
Version 1.1, published: Sept. 6, 2022Open Access
The Levada Center has been conducting omnibus surveys of the Russian population on a regular basis. This data collection includes three questions on Navalny and his strategy of “smart voting” (plus standard socio-demographic data) from all surveys (in which any of these questions were included) conducted from May 2013 to February 2022. The question about approval of Navalny’s activities is available for 2013, 2018 and 2020-2022. The questions about smart voting have been asked only in 2021.
The original data file is in Russian, but the "documentation of data collection" offers translations into English of all questions and answer options.
In this version 1.1 some small typos have been corrected in the description of the data collection. Apart from this it is identical with the previous version.